What Animals Eat Fish? Discover the Surprising List

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There’s something captivating about watching a predator chase down its prey, especially if that prey happens to be fish. But did you know that it’s not just the obvious aquatic hunters like sharks and dolphins who rely on fish as a major part of their diets?

From unexpected land creatures to birds of prey soaring high above our heads, there exist a multitude of animals that have developed a taste for fish over time.

“Once considered a supplement to their main diet, increasingly more animal species are incorporating fish into their everyday meals.”

The reasons behind this phenomenon vary from species to species, but one thing is clear – fish pack quite the nutritional punch. High in protein, calcium, and omega-3 fatty acids, it’s no wonder so many animals have chosen to make them a staple of their diet.

In this article, we’ll explore some of the most surprising members of the animal kingdom that eat fish regularly. Prepare to be astonished by the diverse group of hunters we’ve compiled!

We bet you didn’t expect to hear about certain primates dipping their toes into the fish-eating world, or that snakes could actually swim and hunt underwater. So why wait? Let’s dive right in and learn which members of the animal kingdom find fish truly irresistible!

Aquatic Predators


One of the most common aquatic predators, sharks are known to feed on a variety of fish species. Some shark species are opportunistic and will eat whatever prey is available at the time such as sardines, herring, or mackerel. However, some larger sharks like hammerheads and tiger sharks actively hunt larger fish like tuna, marlin, and even dolphins.

Sharks have multiple rows of sharp teeth that enable them to grip their prey before biting it off. They also have a highly specialized sensory system that allows them to pick up on electric fields emitted by prey animals. Sharks can detect changes in these electrical fields, indicating changes in both potential meal opportunities and danger.

“Sharks are often misunderstood creatures – they aren’t mindless killing machines, but rather fascinating animals with unique traits.” – Drew DeGavia


Many whale species are known for feeding on small fish and plankton. Baleen whales like humpbacks and blue whales sift through large amounts of water using baleen plates to filter tiny schools of krill and other small organisms from the sea. Toothed whales like sperm whales, on the other hand, dive deep into the ocean to catch diet staple food including squid and smaller fish like cod, pollock, and hake.

In fact, some whale species play an important role in helping regulate fish populations. For example, killer whales, which typically target specific types of fish, may help stabilize salmon populations by only preying on weak or sick individuals, allowing healthy specimens to reproduce without competition for resources.

“The more I learn about whales, the more I’m struck by how amazing they are. Their intelligence, communication, and social structures are unlike anything else in the animal kingdom.” – Christina Nicoletti


Although more commonly associated with hunting prey on land, crocodiles also show a penchant for feeding on fish. These reptiles have evolved powerful jaws that can clamp down on their prey with immense force, aided by sharp teeth designed to tear flesh apart.

Saltwater crocodiles, which can grow up to six meters long and weigh over a tonne, are known to be one of the most aggressive species of aquatic predator when it comes to hunting fish. Fishermen regularly report entire nets decimated overnight from one single hungry crocodile, demonstrating just how adept these predators have become at catching unwary fish!

“Crocodiles are fascinating creatures – they’re biologically related to birds and share many features found in other dinosaurs.” – Dr. Adam Britton

Birds of Prey

Birds of prey, also known as raptors, are a group of birds that have specialized beaks and talons for hunting and feeding on other animals. Many species of birds of prey include fish in their diets, making them an important part of the aquatic food chain.


Eagles are powerful birds of prey often associated with strength and freedom. These birds can be found all over the world and have diverse diets depending on their location. Some species of eagles feed mainly on fish,

“Bald eagles get up to 70 percent of their diet from fish.” -National Wildlife Federation

such as the bald eagle native to North America. This bird is not actually bald but instead has a white head which resembles a bald scalp.

The African fish eagle, found near water in Africa, feeds mainly on fish and is well-known for its unique hunting technique. A sighting spectacle involves these birds of prey swooping down faster than speed limits into water taking with them their sharp claws hoping to grab their meal.


Hawks are another type of bird of prey that feeds on fish. The osprey, or sea hawk, is a widespread species of hawk found around the world. These birds have numerous adaptations for fishing, including reversible outer toes, which help them grasp onto fish while airborne.

“Ospreys are called “fish hawks” because they eat live fish almost exclusively.” -New York State Department of Environmental Conservation

In addition to the osprey, some land-based hawk species may occasionally catch fish in shallow waters or small streams, particularly during times when their primary prey is scarce.


Falcons are known for their agility and speed in flight, making them formidable hunters of other birds. However, some species of falcons also include fish in their diets.

“Peregrines feed on medium-sized birds like pigeons, but they will take a variety of prey when it is available. They catch ducks and other waterbirds, as well as land-based birds… Falcons that feed heavily on birds may occasionally eat insects or crustaceans, including crayfish.” -The Peregrine Fund

One such species is the peregrine falcon, which can be found throughout the world in a wide range of habitats. These falcons are sometimes seen near coastal areas feeding on shorebirds and seabirds, as well as fish.

  • Birds of prey play an essential role in maintaining ecological balance and biodiversity by keeping populations of prey under control.
  • Their sharp talons enable them to capture and kill their prey quickly and efficiently.
  • Many species of raptors are threatened due to habitat loss and environmental contaminants.
  • Fishermen often view ospreys as competition because the birds compete to catch many of the same types of fish.

Mammals that Love Fish


When it comes to mammals that love fish, otters are arguably the most famous. These adorable creatures can be found in both freshwater and saltwater environments all over the world, from bustling rivers to isolated islands. Known for their playful nature and sharp hunting skills, otters primarily consume aquatic animals such as fish, crabs, and mollusks. Some species of otters even have a favorite type of fish, with sea otters known for their preference towards clams and abalone.

Despite their small stature, otters are incredibly efficient hunters. They use their keen sense of smell to locate prey, followed by quick movements and agile swimming to catch it. Otters will usually eat their food while floating on their backs, using rocks or other hard objects to crack open shells and tough exoskeletons. While otters are undoubtedly cute and beloved by many, they play an important role in maintaining healthy aquatic ecosystems by controlling populations of smaller creatures like crayfish and frogs.


Another group of mammals known for their love of fish is seals. With their sleek bodies and powerful flippers, seals are perfectly adapted for life in the water. Like otters, seals also consume primarily aquatic prey including fish and squid. However, unlike otters who tend to hunt alone or in small family groups, seals often gather in large colonies to feed and socialize.

In addition to being excellent swimmers and divers, seals are also able to hold their breath for extended periods of time thanks to adaptations in their respiratory system. Depending on the species, seals can remain underwater for anywhere from a few minutes to nearly two hours without needing to resurface. But despite their impressive hunting abilities, many kinds of seals are facing threats from habitat loss, pollution, and overfishing.


Although often associated with marine parks and human entertainment, dolphins are an incredibly intelligent and complex group of mammals that also love to eat fish. Dolphins belong to the same family as whales, porpoises, and orcas, and can be found in both saltwater and freshwater environments all around the globe. While exact dietary preferences vary between species, most types of dolphins consume primarily fish and squid. Some even specialize in certain types of prey such as anchovies or herring.

In addition to their hunting abilities, dolphins also have a sophisticated communication system using clicks and whistles to communicate with each other. They are known for their highly social behavior and are often seen swimming in large pods of up to several hundred individuals. Unfortunately, many dolphin populations are threatened by threats like accidental entanglement in fishing gear, climate change, and habitat destruction.

“The rivers flow not past, but through us; tingling, vibrating, exciting every cell and fiber in our bodies” -John Muir

The world’s aquatic ecosystems are home to an incredible array of wildlife, including countless species of fish and fascinating marine mammals like otters, seals, and dolphins. But these animals face increasing threats from human activity such as overfishing, pollution, and climate change. By learning about and appreciating these amazing creatures, we can take steps towards protecting them and preserving the delicate balance of life in our oceans, streams, and rivers.

Reptiles and Amphibians

Many reptiles and amphibians are known to eat fish as part of their diet. Some species rely solely on a diet of fish, while others may consume them only occasionally.


Frogs are cold-blooded creatures that come in various sizes, shapes, and colors. They are found all over the world except for Antarctica and mostly feed on insects such as flies, beetles, and ants. However, some species of frogs have been known to eat small fish too.

The African bullfrog is one such example; they prey on small fish, aquatic insects, and even birds. The South American horned frog also feeds on small fishes that swim within its reach. Although it happens rarely, larger frogs like the Goliath Frog can consume sizable fish.

“Frogs don’t drink water – they absorb moisture through their skin.” -Unknown


Snakes are known predators and hunt their prey using deadly precision. A significant number of snakes consume fish as well, mainly those which inhabit streams or shallow rivers. Aquatic snakes generally prefer slow-moving fish that lie close to the surface, but some aren’t picky at all and will go after any available fish nearby.

The Northern water snake, Green Anaconda, and Diamond Back Water Snake, are just a few examples of common snake species that consume both fish and other small animals. However, bigger snake varieties such as the Burmese Pythons and Boa Constrictors prefer large prey or mammals instead of smaller marine life.

“Most snakes won’t tolerate other snakes accidentally entering their territory.” -Unknown


Turtles were thought to be strict plant-eaters or herbivores, but many turtles tend to eat a variety of foods. Turtles are popular for their long lifespans and vibrant shell patterns that attracted the attention of humans. The majority of turtle species are omnivorous, meaning they feed on both plants and animals. Turtles living in water habitats will often search near shallow areas where fish swim close to the shore.

Mainly freshwater and semi-aquatic turtles such as red-ear sliders, pond sliders, painted turtles, softshell turtles have been spotted eating small fishes such as bluegills, minnows, salmon fry, and more. Sea turtles like Olive Ridley turtles consume shrimps, jellyfish, crabs and occasionally snack on small schooling fish too.

“Tortoises are so cool, handsome, wise and calm, while turtles are cute, determined, strong and likable.” -Mehmet Murat Ildan
In conclusion, reptiles and amphibians prefer not just insects, but fish sometimes to supplement their diet. Many common snake, turtle, and frog varieties do indeed feed on fish. Although these creatures aren’t predators of large fish, smaller varieties are suitable prey-rich sources for them.

Surprising Fish Eaters

Fish are an essential part of many animals’ diets. However, some creatures might come as a surprise to be fish eaters. Below are four examples of unusual fish eaters.


Bears have long been known to feast on salmon during their annual migration. Brown bears in Alaska can eat up to 40 pounds of salmon each day during the summer months. But did you know that polar bears also rely on fish? In fact, polar bears are skilled hunters and have been known to catch large prey such as beluga whales and even narwhals. Studies estimate that around 20-30% of a polar bear’s diet consists of fish.

“The discovery of this population of Greenland sharks reaching ages older than any other vertebrate species discredits past assumptions about vertebrate lifespans.” -Assistant Professor John Fleng Steffensen


Raccoons may be synonymous with raiding garbage cans, but they’re also avid fish eaters! Since raccoons are excellent climbers, it’s not uncommon for them to pluck fish from a stream or pond while perched on overhanging branches. They’ve also been known to wade into shallow water to scoop up small fish and crayfish using their nimble paws. Raccoons are opportunistic feeders, which means they’ll consume whatever food is available to them–including freshwater fish like bluegill and catfish.


While humans today are more likely to buy their fish fillets at the grocery store, earlier civilizations relied heavily on fishing as a source of food. In some cultures, eating raw fish was (and still is) a common practice. Just think of sushi, ceviche, or gravlax! Seafood is also an excellent source of omega-3 fatty acids which support many bodily functions such as brain health and reducing inflammation.


Badgers are often considered carnivores that primarily eat small mammals like rodents. However, in some areas where fish populations are abundant, they’ve been known to consume a significant amount of them too. Take for example Wisconsin, where badgers have developed a reputation for preying on northern pike and other types of freshwater fish. Although it’s not their primary food source, these burrowing creatures will add fish to their diet when the opportunity arises.

  • Bears, including polar bears, eat fish as a significant portion of their diet.
  • Raccoons display opportunistic behavior and hunt various prey, like fish.
  • Fishing has historically been essential to human civilization, and seafood remains important today.
  • Badgers living near abundant bodies of water may include fish in their diets.

While we may associate certain animals with being herbivores or carnivores, many species exhibit surprising dietary habits. Fish provide a rich source of protein and essential nutrients, making them a valuable component of many animal diets.

Frequently Asked Questions

What are some animals that primarily eat fish?

Some animals that primarily eat fish include bears, eagles, otters, seals, and sharks. These animals have adapted to live in aquatic environments or hunt in bodies of water. They have specialized teeth, jaws, and digestive systems that allow them to catch, consume, and digest fish effectively. Some fish-eating animals are also migratory, following the availability of fish and other prey in different seasons and locations.

Are there any birds that specialize in eating fish?

Yes, there are many birds that specialize in eating fish, including pelicans, herons, ospreys, and cormorants. These birds have long beaks, sharp talons, and keen eyesight that enable them to catch and consume fish in various habitats such as rivers, lakes, and oceans. Some birds even dive into the water to catch fish or snatch them from the surface with their beaks. Fish is a rich source of protein and nutrients for many bird species.

Which marine mammals rely on fish as a major part of their diet?

Many marine mammals rely on fish as a major part of their diet, including dolphins, seals, sea lions, walruses, and whales. These mammals have adapted to living in water and have specialized teeth, jaws, and digestive systems that allow them to catch, consume, and digest fish effectively. Some marine mammals also use echolocation to locate fish and other prey in the water. Fish is a rich source of energy and nutrients for these animals.

What types of insects consume fish?

There are several types of insects that consume fish, including dragonflies, water bugs, and some species of beetles. These insects live in or near bodies of water and have adapted to catching and consuming fish as a part of their diet. They have specialized mouthparts and claws that allow them to grasp and consume fish effectively. Fish is a rich source of protein and other nutrients for these insects.

Do any land animals eat fish?

Yes, there are many land animals that eat fish, including bears, raccoons, and some species of birds and reptiles. These animals live near bodies of water and have adapted to catching and consuming fish as a part of their diet. They have specialized teeth, claws, and digestive systems that allow them to catch, consume, and digest fish effectively. Fish is a rich source of protein and other nutrients for these animals.

How do fish-eating animals catch their prey?

Fish-eating animals catch their prey in various ways, depending on their adaptations and habitat. Some animals, such as birds and reptiles, use their sharp beaks or claws to catch fish from the surface of water or dive into the water to grab them. Marine mammals, such as dolphins and seals, use echolocation to locate fish in the water and chase them down. Some animals, such as otters and bears, use their paws to scoop fish out of the water. Sharks and other fish predators use their sharp teeth to grab and consume fish.

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